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Linux系统常见故障解决方法

减小字体 增大字体 作者:错新网  来源:www.cuoxin.com  发布时间:2014-2-25 19:39:30

Linux系统常见故障解决方法
 

  ZAIWindowsDEXITONGXIA,DANGXITONGFASHENGYIXIEGUZHANGDESHIHOU,WOMENJIUHUIYONGYIXIECHANGJIANBUJIUDECUOSHILAIXIUFUXITONG,ZAILinuxXITONGXIAYEYOUYIXIEBIJIAOCHANGYONGDEJIEJUECHANGJIANGUZHANGDECUOSHI,SHIYONGQILAIYESHIBIJIAOFANGBIANDE。

  SHOUXIANWOMENYAOJIANLIYIGEJIJIUPANZU,BAOKUOZHUNBEIHAObootdiskHErootdiskLIANGZHANGRUANPAN,TAKEYITIGONGYIGEDULIDEQIDONGHEYUNXINGWANZHENGDELinuxXITONGDEZHICHI。RUGUONISHIYIGEXITONGGUANLIYUANDEHUA,NEIMEZHEIKENDINGSHINIBIBUKESHAODERICHANGWEIHUGONGJU。JIJIUPANZUDEDIYIZHANGPANCUNFANGLELinuxXITONGKEQIDONGDENEIHECHENGXUXITONG,JIJIUPANZUZHONGDEDIERZHANGPANSHANGZEYOUYIGEWANZHENGDELinuxXITONG,QIZHONGBAOKUO“root”WENJIANXITONG。

  SHIYONGJIJIUPANZUWEIHUXITONG,CAOZUOQILAISHIBIJIAOJIANDANDE。ZAIQIDONGXITONGDESHIHOU,XUYAOYONGZHEILIANGZHANGPANLAIQIDONGXITONG,ZHEIYANGKEYIJINRUJIJIUMOSHI,ZHEISHIWOMENSHIYONGDESHI“root”ZHANGHU。DANSHIWOMENWEILENENGFANGWENYINGPANSHANGYIYOUDEWENJIAN,JIUXUYAOSHOUGONGANZHUANGYINGPANDEWENJIANXITONG。XIANZAIXITONGDEGENMULUZHIDESHIJIJIUPANSHANGDEGENMULU。WEILENENGGOUFANGWENYINGPANWENJIANXITONGZHONGDEWENJIAN,JIUBIXUXIANBAWENJIANANZHUANGDAOZIJIGUIDINGDEMOUGEMULUXIA。ZHEIYANG,RUGUOJIANGYINGPANSHANGWENJIANXITONGANZHUANGZAI/mntMULUXIA,ZEYINGPANSHANGYUANLAIDE/etc/passwdWENJIANDELUJINGJIUSHI/mnt/etc/passwd。LIRU,YONGXIAMIANDEMINGLINGKEZAI/mntMULUZHONGANZHUANG/dev/hda2PANSHANGDEext2fsLEIXINGDELinuxWENJIANXITONG: # monut -t ext2/dev/hda2/mnt。

  WOMENZUIJINGCHANGFANDECUOWU,KENENGJIUSHIBUXIAOXINSHANCHULEYIXIEBIJIAOZHONGYAODEWENJIAN,ERQIEYIJINGBUNENGZHIJIEHUIFULE。DANSHI,JIJIUPANZULIYOUXIANGYINGDEWENJIAN,WOMENJIUKEYIJIANGZHEIGEWENJIANCONGJIJIUPANZUZHONGZHAODAOBINGQIEFUZHIDAOYINGPANSHANG。LIRU,RUGUOSHANCHULEWENJIAN/bin/login,CISHIXITONGJIANGWUFAZHENGCHANGJINRUDAODENGLUJIEMIAN,WOMENJIUKEYIXIANYONGJIJIUPANZUQIDONGXITONG,BINGJIANGYINGPANWENJIANXITONGANZHUANGDAO/mntMULUXIA,RANHOUSHIYONGXIASHUMINGLING:   

  #cp -a /bin/login /mnt/bin

股票官网  QIZHONG“-a”XUANXIANGSHIYONGLAIGAOSU“cp”ZAIKAOBEIWENJIANSHIBAOCHIWENJIANDEFANGWENQUANXIAN。DANGRANRUGUOBEISHANCHUDEJIBENWENJIANBUZAIJIJIUPANZUZHONG,YEJIUBUNENGYONGZHEIZHONGFANGFALE。DANSHIRUGUOYIQIANZUOGUOGAIXITONGBEIFENDEHUA,NEIMEJIUKEYIYONGYIQIANDEBEIFENLAIHUIFULE。

股票官网  WENJIANXITONGBEIPOHUAIYESHIBIJIAOCHANGJIANDE,RUGUOSHIYONGDESHI“ext2fs”LEIXINGDEWENJIANXITONG,WOMENJIUKECONGRUANPANYUNXING“e2fsck”MINGLINGLAIXIUFUBEISUNHUAIDEWENJIANXITONG。DUIYUQITALEIXINGDEWENJIANXITONG,KEYISHIYONGXIANGYINGDE“fsck”MINGLING。WENJIANXITONGBEIPOHUAIDECHANGJIANYUANYINSHIWENJIANXITONGDE"TOUBU"( YEJIUSHI“CHAOJIKUAI”)SUNHUAI,TABAOHANLEWENJIANXITONGDEZHUANGTAI、CHICUNHEKONGXIANCIPANKUAIDENGXINXI。RUGUOSUNHUAILEYIGEWENJIANXITONGDE“TOUBU”,NEIMEXITONGKENENGHUIWANQUANBUSHIBIEGAIWENJIANXITONG,ZHEIYANGYEJIUBUNENGANZHUANGTALE,JISHICAIYONG“e2fsck”MINGLINGYEBUNENGCHULIZHEIGEWENTI。BUGUO,“ext2fs”LEIXINGDEWENJIANXITONGJIANG“CHAOJIKUAI”DENEIRONGJINXINGLEBEIFEN,BINGCUNFANGYUQUDONGCHENGXUDEKUAIZU(block group)BIANJIE。KEYIYONGRUXIADEMINGLINGGAOSU“e2fsck”SHIYONGCHAOJIKUAIDEBEIFEN:  

股票官网  # e2fsck -b 8193 <partition>

股票官网  QIZHONG“

股票官网  RUGUOBUXIAOXINJIANGXITONGHANSHUKUWENJIANPOHUAILE,HUOZHEPOHUAILE/libMULUXIAFUHAOLIANJIE,NEIMEJIANGDAOZHIYILAIZHEIXIEKUDEMINGLINGWUFAZHENGCHANGZHIXING。ZUIJIANDANDEJIEJUEBANFASHIYONGJIJIUPANZUZHONGXINQIDONGXITONG,ZAI/mntMULUZHONGANZHUANGYINGPANWENJIANXITONG,RANHOUXIUFU/mnt/libMULUXIADEKU。

  RUGUOCHAOJIYONGHUJIANGMIMAWANGJI,JIUWUFAJINRUXITONG,YEWUFAGUANLIHESHIYONGXITONG,YONGJIJIUPANZUJIUKEYIJIEJUEWENTI。RUGUOKENENGSHIMIMABEIXIUGAILE,ZAOCHENGLEXITONGGUANLIYUANWUFAZHENGCHANGJINRUXITONG,YEJIUSHISHUO,LinuxXITONGWANQUANSHIQULEKONGZHI,YINCIYINGJINKUAIZHONGXINHUODEXITONGDEKONGZHIQUAN。YIBANDEJIEJUEFANGFAJIUSHIGESHIHUAYINGPANLAIZHONGXINANZHUANGXITONG,DANZHEIYOUDIANERXIAOTIDAZUOLE。ZHUNBEIHAObootdiskHErootdiskLIANGZHANGRUANPAN,CONGRUANQUQIDONG,QIDONGDAO“root”PANBINGCHUXIAN“shell”TISHIFU。JIANGLinuxGENMULUFENQU“mount”ZHI/mntMULU,BIRUNIDELinuxZAIYINGPANDIYIFENQU,JIUZAIMINGLINGXINGZHONGSHURUmount /dev/hda1 /mnt,RANHOUJINRUmntMULU,JIANGQIZHONGDEetc/passwdWENJIANGAIMING,SHURUmv /mnt/etc/passwd /mnt/etc/passwd.bakJIUKEYILE;JIEZHESHIYONGMINGLINGcp /etc/passwd /mnt/etc/passwdJIANGRUANPANSHANGDE/etc/passwdWENJIANFUZHIDAOYINGPANZHONGDE“etc”MULUXIA,ZHEIYANGZHONGXINYOUYINGPANQIDONG,DENGLUSHIJIUBUHUIXUNWENCHAOJIMIMA;ZUIHOUSHIYONGmv/etc/passwd.bak passwdMINGLINGJIANGpasswdWENJIANGAIHUI,ZAIYUNXINGpasswdMINGLINGZHONGXINSHEDINGMIMAJIUKEYILE。XITONGGUANLIYUANYINGGAIBUDINGQIDIXIUGAIMIMA,FANGZHIZHANGQISHIYONGYIGEHAOMA,ERBEITARENDAOYONG。

  ZAIGERENJISUANJISHIYONGLinuxXITONGSHI,TONGCHANGDOUSHILinuxHEMS Windows 9xHUOMS Windows NTDENGBINGCUNDE。YOUYUANZHUANGLEQITADECAOZUOXITONG,JINGCHANGHUIDAOZHIYUANYOUDELinuxXITONGBUNENGZHENGCHANGQIDONG。ZHEIZHUYAOSHIYINWEI,ZHEIXIECAOZUOXITONGMORENWEIJISUANJIZHONGMEIYOUQITADECAOZUOXITONG,YINERGAIXIELEYINGPANDEZHUYINDAOJILU(MBR),CHONGDIAOLELinuxDELiLoXITONGYINDAOCHENGXU。

  RUGUOYOUJIJIUPANZU,DANGRANHENJIANDAN,KEYIYONGDIYIZHANGQIDONGPANQIDONGYINGPANDELinuxXITONG,ZHONGXINYUNXINGLiLoMINGLING,JIUKEYIJIANGLiLoXITONGYINDAOCHENGXUXIEHUIYINGPANDEZHUYINDAOJILU,ZHONGXINQIDONGJIQIJIKE。DANSHIRUGUOMEIYOUZHIZUOXITONGQIDONGPAN,MEIYOUJIJIUPANZURUHEHUIFUYINGPANSHANGDELinuxXITONGNI?ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,RUGUOZHIDAOLinuxXITONGZAIYINGPANSHANGDEQUEQIEANZHUANGFENQU,QIEYOUloadlinCHENGXU,JIUKEYIZHONGXINFANHUILinuxXITONG。 loadlinCHENGXUSHIZAIDOSXIAYUNXINGDECHENGXU,YUNXINGTAKEYICONGDOSXIAZHIJIEQIDONGLinuxXITONG。ZAI Red Hat Linux 6.0GUANGPANDE DOSutil/MULUXIAJIUYOUZHEIGECHENGXU。CHUCIZHIWAI,HAIXUYAOYIGE LinuxQIDONGNEIHEDEYINGXIANGWENJIAN。ZAI Red Hat linux 6.0GUANGPANDE images/MULUXIAYOUZHEIGEWENJIAN--vmlinuz。 LIRU,ZAIWindows 98XITONGXIA,JINRUDOSDEDANYONGHUMOSHI,RANHOUYUNXINGXIASHUDEloadlinMINGLING,JIKEZHONGXINJINRULinuxXITONG:

股票官网  loadlin vmlinuz root=/dev/hda8

股票官网  QIZHONG“/dev/hda8”SHILinuxXITONGDE“root”WENJIANXITONGSUOZAIDEYINGPANFENQUWEIZHI。MINGLINGZHIXINGHOU,JIUYINDAOLinuxXITONGYONG“root”DENGLUHOU,YUNXINGLiLoMINGLING,ZEKEYIZHONGXINJIANGLiLoZHUANGRUMBR,ZHICIJIUKEYIHUIDAOYIQIANDUOCAOZUOXITONGBINGCUNSHIYONGDEZHUANGTAILE。

股票官网  YEXUNIBUSHIYIGEXITONGGUANLIYUAN,DANSHISUIZHEGERENJISUANJIPEIZHIDERIYITIGAO,ZAIZIJIDEJISUANJISHANGANZHUANGLinuxXITONGYIJINGBUSHISHENMEXINXIANDESHILE。JIASHEWOMENDEJISUANJISHANGTONGSHIZHUANGYOUWindowsHELinuxLIANGGECAOZUOXITONG,YINGGAIRUHEQIDONGLinuxNI?SHIFOUMEICIDOUXUYAOZHONGQIJISUANJI,TONGGUOLiLoYINDAO?QISHIRUGUOWOMENZAIDOSXIA,YOUYIZHONGJIANDANKUAISUQIDONGLinuxDEFANGFA,NEIJIUSHILoad Linux。“loadlin.exe”SHIZAIDOSXIADEKEZHIXINGCHENGXU,TAKEYIZAICHUNDOSHUANJINGXIAXUNSUQIDONGLinux,ERQIEWUXUZHONGQIJISUANJI,TONGCHANGWOMENKEYIZAIGUANGPANDE/kernelsMULUXIAZHAODAOZHEIGECHENGXU。RUGUOBUZHIZHEIGECHENGXUBEIFANGZHIYUANZHUANGPANDEHECHU,KEYISHIYONG“find -name loadlin*”MINGLINGLAIXUNZHAO。ZHAODAOZHIHOUJIANGQIFUZHIDAODOSFENQUZHONG,TONGSHIHAIXUYAOFUZHIYIFENNISUOSHIYONGDELinuxNEIHEWENJIAN。KEYITONGGUOWindowsZHIJIECONGGUANGPANFUZHI,YEKEZAILinuxHUANJINGXIASHIYONGmcopyMINGLINGJIANGWENJIANcopyDAODOSFENQU;JIEZHEZAIBIANXIEYIGELinux.batDEPICHULIWENJIAN,WENJIANNEIRONGRUXIA:

  c:loadlin c:vmlinuz root=/dev/hda1 ro

  QIZHONGWOMENJIASHEloadlin.exeHEvmlinuzZHEILIANGGENEIHEWENJIANDOUZAIcPANGENMULU,ERrootWEILinuxGENSHEBEI,ERQIELinuxCHUYUYINGPANDIYIFENQU,SUOYISHEBEIMINGWEI/dev/hda1,roYIWEIreadonly。YIHOUZAIDOSXIAYAOQIDONGLinuxSHI,YUNXINGLinux.batJIUKEYILE。ZHEIYANGQIDONGLinuxKUAISUGAOXIAO,DADAJIANSHAOLEXITONGZIJIANSHIDENGDAIDESHIJIAN。

股票官网  RUGUOWOMENZAIXwindowsZHUANGTAIXIAYUNXINGLinuxSHI,YOUYUYINGJIANBENSHENDEWENTIHUOZHEZIJICAOZUOSHANGDEBUDANG,YOUSHIHOUKENENGHUIDAOZHIXITONGTURANSHIQUXIANGYING,YEJIUSHIWOMENCHANGJIANDAODEYIZHONGSIJIXIANXIANG,QISHICISHIXITONGBINGMEIYOUSIJI。WOMENKEYIYONGLIANGGECHANGYONGDEFANGFALAIXIAOCHUZHEIZHONGXIANXIANG:DIYI,YONGJIANPANSHANGDEFUHEJIANCtrl+Alt+BackspaceLAIGUANBIDANGQIANZHENGZAIYUNXINGDERENWU;DIER,SHOUXIANANZHUJIANPANSHANGDECtrl+Alt+F2FUHEJIAN,RANGXITONGQIEHUANDAOLINGYIGECAOZUOTAI,RANHOUDENGLUDAOXITONG,ZAIZHIXING#ps -ax|grep startxMINGLING,ZHEIJIANGHUILIECHUNIDEXserverDEJINCHENGBIAOSHI(PID),JIEZHEZAIMINGLINGXINGZHONGSHURURUXIAMINGLINGJIUNENGXIAOCHUXwindowsXIADESIJIXIANXIANG:#kill -9 PID_Number,ZUIHOUTONGGUOAlt+F1FUHEJIANFANHUIYUANLAIDEPINGTAI。

  常见的错误及解决办法还有很多,在这里只是提及了一部分,如果大家还有需要补充的或是本文中有需要纠正的地方欢迎提出,让我们一起提高。 


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